TOJDEL - Volume 10 - Issue 2 - April 2022

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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MOTIVATION AMONG THE LEARNERS OF INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY AND ODISHA STATE OPEN UNIVERSITY

Muralidhar Majhi, Venkateswar Meher

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The motivation of learners deals with the commitment of their goals, where the motivated students develop their willingness for accomplishing their desired goals in terms of assignment submission, courses completion, preparation for end term examinations etc., as a whole. Realising the crucial need of studying and increasing the motivation level among the learners an attempt has been taken by the researchers for investigating motivation of the distance learners towards ODL by developing a motivation scale. The study was conducted in two parts, in the first part efforts has been taken to develop, validate and standardise a motivation scale towards open and distance learning, and in the second part, efforts have been taken to compare the motivation level of distance learners of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and Odisha State Open University (OSOU). The findings of the study revealed that the final version of motivation scale towards open and distance learning was consisted of three dimensions i.e., academic motivation, non-academic motivation, and demotivation. The academic motivation dimension of the scale consisted of 17 items, non-academic motivation consisted of 12 items, and demotivation consisted of 07 items. So, in total 36 items were there in the MSODL. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability of the motivation scale was found to be 0.88 and split-half reliability was found to be 0.87, which revealed that the motivation scale was highly reliable having high internal consistency. Further, the findings also revealed that the motivation scores of students studying in OSOU were found to be significantly more than their counter part IGNOU students. The academic motivation scores of students studying in OSOU were found to be significantly more than their counter part of IGNOU students. The non-academic motivation scores of students studying in OSOU were found to be significantly more than their counter part of IGNOU students. The demotivation scores of students studying in IGNOU were found to be significantly more than their counter part of OSOU students.

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BENEFITS AND BARRIERS TO OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES (OERS): PRESERVICE TEACHERS’ PERCEPTION

Ilfa Zaidi, Roohi Amir, Harjeet Kaur Bhatia

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The present study intended to investigate preservice teachers’ perception towards the benefits and barriers to OERs in their teaching-learning experiences and in general, as well as to compile their suggestions for maximising the benefits and minimising the barriers to OERs. Data was collected by administering structured questionnaire on preservice teachers at Jamia Millia Islamia. The findings indicated that majority of the participants agreed about the benefits of OERs, indicating a favourable attitude toward the adoption and usage of OERs. But there were few participants who reported barriers to OERs in their teaching-learning experiences. The study also highlighted various suggestions gathered to improve the benefits and reduce the barriers to OERs through various initiatives and provisions to encourage preservice teachers to develop and share their teaching materials, as well as to promote the use of OERs during teaching deliberations.

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CAPTURING THE PERCEPTION OF RESEARCH SCHOLARS TOWARDS ONLINE PH.D. COURSE WORK DURING COVID-19: A DIPSTICK STUDY IN SELECTED REGIONS OF WEST BENGAL

Samuel S Mitra, Milton Costa, Divyani Datta, Uzma Khan

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After the emergence of COVID-19 pandemic, research scholars have largely been active through the online mode of interaction, further demonstrating the need for such a whirlwind way of learning. In this light, it has been observed that a large number of research scholars all across India have been resorting to online PhD course work to fulfil their academic agenda. In this context, it becomes quite pivotal to throw light upon the perception of research scholars towards online PhD course work. The current research study is attempted at probing into the attitudes and behaviour of research scholars dwelling in the state of West Bengal towards online PhD course work by the application of “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM). The findings reveal positive perception among the surveyed research scholars towards online PhD course work.

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DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF ONLINE CLASS ENVIRONMENT SCALE (OCES) 4

N. PRAKASH, C.BARATHI

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This article explores the development and standardization process of the Online Class Environment Scale. The Online Class Environment scale is developed with six dimensions such as Interest, Family Environment, Technology in Teaching-Learning, Evaluation, Psychological Aspects, and Health Aspects. The preliminary draft of the Online Class Environment scale was prepared with 50 statements and it was subjected to test the discrimination ability of its statements’ by using a t-test to the random sample of 393 higher secondary school students. The 42 statements were retained which possessed equal and greater than the critical value of 1.75 and all others were not retained. The face and content validity were found and the reliability of the tool is found to be 0.79 by using Chronbach’s alpha formula. The norm of the Online Class Environment scale was established and the tool is said to be standardized.

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EDUCATIONAL PANACEA TOWARDS LEARNING BEHAVIOUR AMONG STUDENTS DURING PANDEMIC

K. Jagannathan, R Rupashree

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“Online Education” is one of the most prominent words during the pandemic period among all education communities. Many online courses are already offered by several organizations and Institutions which related to value-added, skill development and upgrading for the active learners. However, the Online mode of education is so popular and necessary for the learner’s community, particularly during the pandemic period. Due to the inevitable situation, the learner’s communities are pressed up for adopting another mode of learning platform to continue their learning journey. In this study, the researcher has attempted to analyze the relationship between time and the Behaviour of the learner in an online class and has also analyzed the impact of adequate ICT facilities and tools on the Behaviour of the learners. To prove the objectives and hypothesis designed correlation and ANOVA was used as a tool and the result was drawn through SPSS. The results found that there is a direct relationship between time and the Behaviour of learners and the ICT facility plays a major role in learner’s attitudes.

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EXPLORING ONLINE TEACHING SATISFACTION WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF COVID-19: IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

Kellee Vess, Jeff Russell

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The purpose of this study is to explore faculty online teaching satisfaction, using both quantitative and qualitative methods for examination. Data collection was completed using an online survey tool. Participants completed a survey that began with Wasilik and Bollinger’s (2009) 28-item instrument measuring online teaching satisfaction, and then participants were asked to provide answers to open-ended questions about satisfaction and overall online learning teaching quality. Findings from this study support the notion that online faculty satisfaction is multifactorial, and faculty satisfaction needs to be a key component in determining and/or improving overall quality of online programming. Factors noted in both qualitative and quantitative data sets that impact overall faculty satisfaction are reviewed, along with implications for practice, and future directions. As we move into the future of online learning and higher education, we are at a pivotal moment in determining gaps and future directions for online education. The significance of this study is to highlight current issues related to online teaching satisfaction and to provide areas of focus to minimize the barriers to successful online teaching and learning practices. 

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EXPLORING THE PERSPECTIVES OF POSTGRADUATE FACULTIES OF TUMKUR UNIVERSITY ON THE USE OF WEB 2.0 TOOLS FOR TEACHING AND RESEARCH

C. Vysakh, H. Rajendra Babu.

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The study explores the perspectives on the employ of Web 2.0 tools for teaching and research by the postgraduate faculties of the Tumkur University, Karnataka. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 62 faculties. The findings revealed that Facebook was the most liked SNS among the faculties which they used for sharing information and participating in discussions. Wikipedia was the most used social networking site for teaching and research. The use of web 2.0 has helped the faculties to improve the visibility of their scientific output and fetch citations to their work. Lack of support from the university was the main hurdle cited by the faculties to integrate web 2.0 tools.  The findings of the study provide a useful idea to the faculties to make use of web 2.0 tools for educational purposes. 

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INTENTION OF STUDENTS TOWARDS TECH-ORIENTED TEACHING-LEARNING METHOD: A STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE AND POSTGRADUATE LEVEL

Abhijit Sinha, Sudin Bag, Keyarani Mandal

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This study aims to investigate the intention of students of higher education towards the adaptation of tech-oriented teaching-learning method. It also measures the intentional difference between post-graduate and under-graduate students regarding adaptation to the tech-oriented education system.
The investigation is based on 1826 responses collected through online survey. The extended form of Technology Acceptance Model is considered to investigate using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. The intentional difference is assessed by employing the multi-group analysis using the measurement invariance for composite approach.
The results reveal that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively influence attitude that affects intention of students to the ICT-based education system. Moreover, ease of use and perceived usefulness also holds positive relationship with intention to use online education. Furthermore, results reveal that though social status and self-efficacy positively impact perceived usefulness and ease of use, economic status has an opposite influence. The study finds no significant difference between the post-graduate and under-graduate students towards adaptation of tech-oriented education system.
There is no previous evidence that makes a comparison between the undergraduate and postgraduate regarding their intention towards online education. The findings can help in designing appropriate policies for higher education.

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LEARNING INCLINATION, EXECUTIVES, AND ONLINE LEARNING 9

Sushil Kumar Pare, Yesha Mehta, Girish Korde, Yogesh Funde

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Computing technologies are creating new vistas for learners and educators. Online learning appears to be the most
advantageous and efficient learning method. Various advantages such as reasonable pricing, the flexibility of
course content and timings, the comfort of learning from home or office, and the value of accredited certification
make online learning a preferred learning method, especially for executives. However, how the target audience
(executives) perceives the urge for learning and learning preference is under question. We conducted this study to
capture their learning inclination or an inner urge for learning and how these executives prefer learning through
various modes and upskill themselves.
A quantitative approach was adopted to study learning inclination. The study included 103 executives from midlevel
to CXO levels in their careers. Non-probabilistic sampling is used to collect the data. The data thus gathered
is analyzed to check the validity of the construct and the impact of demographic variables.
We found that 'Online Learning' is the third-most preferred learning channel, superseded by 'On-the-job learning'
and 'Mentoring.' Moreover, 'Certification,' 'Monitoring,' and 'Recommendations by friends or peers' are the top
three reasons for choosing online learning. The demographic parameters considered; namely, gender, age,
qualification, household income, and occupation, did not affect the learning inclination of the target group.
The present study examines the urge to update professional knowledge, refresh existing knowledge, acquire a new
skill, and learn a hobby as indicators of learning inclination.

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MOBILE LEARNING FOR CAPACITY BUILDING OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROFESSIONALS 10

Mohsin Uddin, Mohd Naveed Uddin, Pankaj Upadhyay, Krishan Kumar

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The capacity building and development institutes are increasingly using mobile technology to train Rural
Development Professionals. The paper is based on the study undertaken to elicit the educators and rural
development professionals’ opinions on Mobile for learning and distance education. The research involved semistructured
questionnaire. The sample consists of two groups: 20 Educators and 100 Rural Development
Professionals. This study indicates that Mobile learning could be the right communication vehicle and learning
source. In conclusion, this contribution identifies future research avenues relating to the use of mobile learning
among capacity building institutes.

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ONLINE LEARNING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON COGNITIVE STYLES AND ACADEMIC CAREER OF STUDENTS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC

Muhammad Aarif Malik, Parmod Kumar

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Our educational system has been extremely reformed, shaped, structured and ameliorated by the use of innovative technologies in this field. Computer-based learning swapped the conventional ways of teaching-learning and have a gargantuan role in producing a creative and skilful youth. Though from the emergence of covid-19 pandemic situation, it has significantly been observed and investigated that online learning wholly and solely protected the academic career of our school-going generation. The current paper is purely theoretical and is grounded in some research studies. It is an unpretentious attempt to explore the effect of online learning on the cognitive styles and academic career of students during the covid-19 pandemic. Online-learning modes comprehensively refurbished the cognition of students and improved their cognitive styles, style of thinking, perceiving, problem-solving and learning styles during the pandemic. The review of extensive related literature demonstrated that e-learning pedagogies brought a significant revolution in the teaching-learning process during coronavirus. The present study scrupulously explored the role of online learning in shielding the academic career of students during covid-19 expansion and nurtured their cognition and mental health by the utilization of innovative scientific inventions existing in the field of education.

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PRE-SERVICE TRAINEE TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCES ON COMPUTER-MEDIATED LEARNING DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC REVEALED THE NEED OF REVAMPING ONLINE PEDAGOGY IN INDIA

Anirban Roy, Animesh Kumar Mohapatra

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This study attempted to understand the perceptions of Indian pre-service teacher trainees towards computer-mediated learning after two months of exposure to synchronous online classes in 2020 that came along with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey-based approach employed Likert-rating scales (and items) and open-ended questions to elicit the experiences of 180 final-year students enrolled in pre-service teaching courses at Regional Institute of Education (a constituent unit of the National Council of Educational Research and Training) Bhubaneswar, OD, India. The semi-qualitative analysis of the responses reported that more than one-third of the pre-service trainee teachers (36.6 %) considered online classes as a poor mode of teaching while about one-third (30.6 %) are in a state of confusion. Given the present social situation of self-isolation and unpredictable arrival of ‘normal’ life, this study could help to improve the teaching practices, considering its applicability across a large swath of different educational disciplines. In addition to that, this paper aims to be a valuable resource to improve computer-mediated learning in India since future teachers have been considered as the sample of this study.

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PROBLEM FACED BY STUDENTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION DURING VIRTUAL CLASSES: A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF KASHMIR

Hafsah Jan, Sumaya Yaqoob

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During the Pandemic, the all the sectors went suddenly from off-line to on-line mode, from on-campus to off campus, from office to work from home. The education sector is no exception. Till date the education sector is not fully operational via on-campus or off-line mode. All schools up to universities went from offline mode to online mode of learning within a very short period of time. The qualitative method of research was used to achieve the specific objectives. The research aimed at finding the problems faced by the students during the online mode of learning in various departments of Central university of Kashmir. The study was conducted using a google form questionnaire prepared by the researchers. The questionnaire was based on the various problems or issues faced by the students during online mode of learning & contained 20 questions regarding the problems faced by students. The google link was shared in the WHATSAPP groups of the departments of Central University of Kashmir. The investigator was reminding the student of all the departments on daily basis till required sample size of 104 respondents were reached. Finally, the recorded responses were accessed by the investigator according to the objectives of the study. It was found that majority of students were not interested in taking online classes. So, blended approach needs to be taken under consideration. The most important part of learning that was affected drastically was the practical education as this part of education cannot be fulfilled in online mode of learning. More than one third of students believed that practical part was not justified in online mode of learning. Majority of students feel that technological knowledge has a great role to play in online learning. When both the teachers as well as learners are techno-seavey then the online education becomes possible.

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STUDENTS’ AND TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS ABOUT ONLINE TEACHING DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC A SURVEY

Parmjeet Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Adarash pal Singh, Mandeep Singh

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The Covid-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic transformation in every aspect of life. The education system has shifted from conventional classroom teaching to virtual mode to encourage the principal of social distancing. The technology played a major role in smooth delivery of educational needs globally during the pandemic. The  change to online teaching brought new opportunity for the students to continue teaching but at the same time  carried with it many new challenges. Current study is done to evaluate the students’ and teachers’ perceptions about online teaching in current scenario.   
The present study is the questionnaire based survey to know the students' and teachers' perceptions about the online teaching in Northern India. The sample size consisted of 323 students and 146 teachers who responded to the survey questionnaire on google forms.  
The IT and infrastructure related issues, the training needs of students and teachers and difficulty is assessing the practical skills have been found to be the main challenges for the smooth delivery of e-learning. There is need to address these concerns to allow the smooth delivery of digital learning in future as it can go a long way to help the global education system.  
Virtual learning can play an integral role in the educational system by bridging the gap of distance and travel. Students even at remote areas can benefit from online teaching provided the infrastructure is supportive and the participants have proper training to use the system. Combination of classroom and virtual teaching can be an answer in future for best utilisation of resources and manpower. This is an original research article based on the online survey questionnaire about online teaching. 

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STUDY OF THE OPINION OF HIGHER EDUCATION STUDENTS TOWARDS ONLINE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

Lalima, Jaya Shukla

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The purpose of the study was to find out the opinion of Higher Education Students towards the Online teaching-learning process and understand the issues and problems related to it. In the pandemic phase due to the closure of the educational institutions, traditional offline teaching-learning shifted to the online teaching-learning process. The online teaching-learning process has revamped classroom transactions and interaction. In this study, researchers analyzed the opinion of students of higher Education toward the online teaching-learning process

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USE OF MOODLE TO DEVELOP ONLINE TRAINING PACKAGE ON PROBLEM BASED LEARNING STRATEGY (PBLS) FOR STUDENT TEACHERS

Vaishali Manoj Sawant

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It is the need of today's society that people are able to solve complex problems efficiently. Being able to solve problems successfully is more than just accumulating knowledge- it involves development of flexible, cognitive strategies that help analyze different problem situations to produce meaningful learning outcomes. Online training package on Scaffolded Problem Based Learning Strategy using the learning management system, MOODLE is planned to guide student teachers to become experts in the field of study, proficient in  identifying the problems based on the domain knowledge of the discipline and analyzing and contributing to the solutions in a completely online mode.  
The online training package, designed on the lines of ADDIE model is assigned four credits and student teachers need to put in 120 hours of study for completion of the training. The package incorporates PBLS, follows collaborative approach and has provision of scaffolds. The study was carried out on forty-one student teachers of a College of Education. The student teachers were selected on the basis of their competence in the use of computer and internet. The student teachers undertook the online training in Scaffolded Problem Based Learning strategy (PBLS) wherein the student teachers had to solve ten problems related to difficulties faced by school teachers and administrators in the implementation of various aspects of PBLS.  
Effectiveness of the online training package was measured in terms of formative and summative achievement in the theory of PBLS. Findings indicate more than 80% of the student teachers scored more than 80% marks each in the formative and summative achievement tests on the theory of PBLS.

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